Prevention of Nipah virus infection, Nipah virus infection, How to get Nipah besides raw date palm juice



Nipah virus is an animal-borne virus transmitted by bats, with a high mortality rate (40-70 percent). The outbreak of this disease is usually seen in South East Asia and South East Africa.

It is an RNA virus belonging to Henipa virus. The virus is found in the saliva and urine of infected bats. Evidence of transmission of the virus has been found in humans and pigs.

At times it has been scientifically proven to cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in humans as well as respiratory infections and respiratory infections in pigs.

Prevention of Nipah virus infection, Nipah virus infection, How to get Nipah besides raw date palm juice

History of infection

The virus was first transmitted to humans from a pig farm in Malaysia in 1998, infecting 265 people and causing 108 deaths, but the infection was then described as an 'unrecognized disease'. Later in 1999, the virus was identified.

The virus is named after the 'Sungai Nipah' (Nipah River) in Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, where the virus was first discovered in humans. Along with the Ebola virus, the World Health Organization has already named the Nipah virus as a potentially important cause of future pandemics.

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At first, the infection of this virus was thought to be 'Japanese encephalitis' disease, but later it was seen that adult people who received the Japanese encephalitis vaccine were also affected by this infection. Two bat species found in Malaysia, Pteropus vampyrus and Pteropus hypomelanus, commonly known as “Pteropid Fruit Bat”, have been identified as carriers of the virus. The virus spreads and causes infection through the urine, feces and saliva of bats.

Bangladesh situation

In Bangladesh, the first case of Nipah virus was found in Meherpur district in 2001 . Later in 2003, 2004 and 2005, outbreaks of the disease occurred in Naogaon, Manikganj, Rajbari, Faridpur and Tangail districts. In January and February 2023, 11 infections resulted in 8 deaths. This is the highest Nipah virus infection recorded in Bangladesh since 2015 . 10 out of 11 affected people had a history of drinking raw date palm juice during winter.

spread of infection

Mainly, animal-borne infections spread to humans from the bodies of bats and pigs. Also, infection can spread from the body of a sick person to a healthy person through blood, urine and cold.

Diagnosis

Nipah virus infection is confirmed by the presence of brown pigment in a multinucleated cell produced by virus infection in human brain cells.


Nipah virus infection has no specific early signs and symptoms and is often not suspected as Nipah virus disease at the time of presentation, which may hinder timely diagnosis and is a problem in outbreak detection and timely infection control measures.

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In addition, clinical specimen quantity, quality, type, timing of collection, and errors in the process of transferring specimens from patients to the laboratory can affect diagnostic results.

The virus can be detected by ELISA, cell culture, in addition to major tests including real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from body fluids such as urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.

Nipah virus infection can be confirmed by detecting immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies after recovery.

Those at risk

  • Hospital health workers
  • Infected pig farmer
  • A healthy person in contact with an infected person
  • Those who drink raw date palm juice in winter
  • Those who eat fruit partially eaten by bats, mixed with bat saliva
  • People who drink or use water from wells inhabited by bats.

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hibernation

4-14 days, but can be up to a maximum of 45 days. (The latent period is the period between the initial stage of infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease).

Symptoms

Fever, headache, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, body aches, vomiting, nausea, chills, unconsciousness, pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), coma.

Diagnosis

  • Virus detection by RT-PCR testing of throat swabs, blood, CSF and urine.
  • Blood Ome and IgM test.
  • Immunohistochemistry examination by autopsy of certain tissues of the deceased.

* Resistance

  • Adhere to hygiene rules.
  • Avoid contact with infected people, bats and pigs.
  • Do not drink raw date juice during winter or any other time.
  • Do not drink frozen date juice.
  • Avoid eating bat parts or bitten fruit.
  • Avoid using water from wells inhabited by bats.

* Treatment

No specific and effective medicine or vaccine has been discovered so far. So taking preventive measures is the best approach.

Complexity

Even after recovery, patients may develop a variety of complications; Such as amnesia, inattention, epilepsy, seizures and personality changes.

Risk of death

40-70 percent of infected patients die, in some cases 100 percent. As there is no specific treatment for Nipah virus infection, proper steps should be taken to prevent the risk of death by creating and increasing public awareness in this regard.

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Finally: Nipah Symptoms and Treatment, Prevention and Remedies Nipah

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